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Nghiện rượu, nghiện thuốc với bệnh tật

Alcohol and drug abuse

Alcohol and drug use in men often begin early in their lives, during the teen or young adult years. The reasons men begin drinking too much or using drugs vary, and the path from casual, social use to abuse and addiction is complex. What we do know is that abusing alcohol and drugs is very harmful — not only to you, but to the people in your life.

skull taking drugAnything more than moderate drinking can be risky. For a man, moderate drinking is considered two drinks a day. Years of heavy drinking can lead to heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. Binge drinking, which is drinking five or more drinks at one time, can be especially dangerous.

Consider these risks of drinking too much or using drugs:

Depression, anxiety, suicide

Accidents

Violence, often against loved ones

Risky sexual behavior, such as unprotected sex or sex with multiple partners

Employment problems

Health problems, including cancer and HIV

Addiction, which is a disease described by uncontrollable cravings and physical dependence

In the moment, it may seem like a good idea to use drugs or alcohol to get high, relax, or escape. But alcohol and drug abuse can soon cause serious problems. Fortunately, substance abuse disorders are also treatable. If you have a problem with drugs or alcohol, seek help from your doctor or a treatment facility. With treatment, it's possible to not only regain your health, but also restore the relationships that matter to you.

The decision to stop using alcohol or other drugs is very important to your health. If your doctor knows that you have made this decision, he or she can support you and treat any medical problems that may occur during your recovery. For example, mood changes, such as irritability, anger, depression, anxiety, insomnia (problems sleeping) and problems with sex, are common in the first few months of recovery. If you have any of these problems and discuss them honestly with your doctor, he or she can help you deal with them.

If you were taking medicine, such as blood pressure medicine, during the time when you were drinking or using drugs, your doctor may need to adjust the dose of this medicine now that you're in recovery.

In the past, you may not have been honest with your doctor about how much, how often and how long you used alcohol or other drugs. If you have abused prescription medicines, you may be uncomfortable telling your doctor. Perhaps you're afraid that if you share this information, he or she won't prescribe medicines when you need them. No matter what your past relationship with your doctor was--whether or not you were open about your alcohol or drug problem--your future relationship needs to be based on honesty. You must work together to support your long-term recovery.

Is it safe to take medicine for pain or anxiety if I am recovering from alcohol or drug abuse?

In general, taking medicines for anxiety or pain for a long time can increase your risk of a relapse. For this reason, your doctor may want you to try other ways of relieving any pain, anxiety or insomnia you have. For example, your doctor may suggest that you try physical therapy, ice or heat on the area where you have pain, or massage therapy. These methods are often helpful. Non-opiate (not addictive) pain medicines can also be helpful in relieving pain if other methods don't work. Using relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing and meditation, may also help relieve feelings of stress and anxiety.

When your doctor prescribes a medicine such as a benzodiazepine or an opiate because other methods don't work to relieve your pain or anxiety, discuss the risk of relapse with your doctor. The two of you can work together to find the safest treatment. If you are active in a 12-step program or another self-help support program, you should let your fellow members know that you are taking one of these medicines.

Is it safe to take an antidepressant if depression is a problem during my recovery?

Major depression is a serious medical condition and often must be treated with an antidepressant. When appropriately prescribed and used, antidepressants do not carry a risk of relapse. Based on your recovery status, your doctor will be able to tell you if an antidepressant is right for you.

During the first few months of recovery, you may find that participating in a self-help support group can help with depressed feelings. It is very important to let your doctor know if you are involved in such a group.

Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction

Many people do not understand why or how other people become addicted to drugs. It is often mistakenly assumed that drug abusers lack moral principles or willpower and that they could stop using drugs simply by choosing to change their behavior. In reality, drug addiction is a complex disease, and quitting takes more than good intentions or a strong will. In fact, because drugs change the brain in ways that foster compulsive drug abuse, quitting is difficult, even for those who are ready to do so. Through scientific advances, we know more about how drugs work in the brain than ever, and we also know that drug addiction can be successfully treated to help people stop abusing drugs and lead productive lives.

Drug abuse and addiction have negative consequences for individuals and for so-ciety. Estimates of the total overall costs of substance abuse in the United States, including productivity and health- and crime-related costs, exceed $600 billion annually. This includes approximately $193 billion for illicit drugs,1 $193 billion for tobacco,2 and $235 billion for alcohol.3 As staggering as these numbers are, they do not fully describe the breadth of destructive public health and safety implications of drug abuse and addiction, such as family disintegration, loss of employment, failure in school, domestic violence, and child abuse.

What Is Drug Addiction?

Addiction is a chronic, often relapsing brain disease that causes compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences to the addicted individual and to those around him or her. Alt-hough the initial decision to take drugs is voluntary for most people, the brain changes that occur over time challenge an addicted person’s self control and hamper his or her ability to resist intense impulses to take drugs.

Fortunately, treatments are available to help people counter addiction’s powerful disruptive effects. Research shows that combining addiction treatment medications with behavioral therapy is the best way to ensure success for most patients. Treatment approaches that are tailored to each patient’s drug abuse patterns and any co-occurring medical, psychiatric, and social problems can lead to sustained recovery and a life without drug abuse.

Similar to other chronic, relapsing diseases, such as diabetes, asthma, or heart disease, drug addiction can be managed successfully. And as with other chronic diseases, it is not uncommon for a person to relapse and begin abusing drugs again. Relapse, however, does not signal treatment failure—rather, it indicates that treatment should be reinstated or adjusted or that an alternative treatment is needed to help the individual regain control and recover.

What Happens to Your Brain When You Take Drugs?

Drugs contain chemicals that tap into the brain’s communication system and disrupt the way nerve cells normally send, receive, and process information. There are at least two ways that drugs cause this disruption: (1) by imitating the brain’s natural chemical messengers and (2) by overstimulating the “reward circuit” of the brain.

Some drugs (e.g., marijuana and heroin) have a similar structure to chemical messengers called neurotransmitters, which are naturally produced by the brain. This similarity allows the drugs to “fool” the brain’s receptors and activate nerve cells to send abnormal messages.

Other drugs, such as cocaine or methamphetamine, can cause the nerve cells to release abnormally large amounts of natural neurotransmitters (mainly dopamine) or to prevent the normal recycling of these brain chemicals, which is needed to shut off the signaling between neurons. The result is a brain awash in dopamine, a neurotransmitter present in brain regions that control movement, emotion, motivation, and feelings of pleasure. The overstimulation of this reward system, which normally responds to natural behaviors linked to survival (eating, spending time with loved ones, etc.), produces euphoric effects in response to psychoactive drugs. This reaction sets in motion a reinforcing pattern that “teaches” people to repeat the rewarding behavior of abusing drugs.

As a person continues to abuse drugs, the brain adapts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number of dopamine receptors in the reward circuit. The result is a lessening of dopamine’s impact on the reward circuit, which reduces the abuser’s ability to enjoy not only the drugs but also other events in life that previously brought pleasure. This decrease compels the addicted person to keep abusing drugs in an attempt to bring the dopamine function back to normal, but now larger amounts of the drug are required to achieve the same dopamine high—an effect known as tolerance.

Long-term abuse causes changes in other brain chemical systems and circuits as well. Glutamate is a neurotransmitter that influences the reward circuit and the ability to learn. When the optimal concentration of glutamate is altered by drug abuse, the brain attempts to compensate, which can impair cognitive function. Brain imaging studies of drug-addicted individuals show changes in areas of the brain that are critical to judgment, decision making, learning and memory, and behavior control. Together, these changes can drive an abuser to seek out and take drugs compulsively despite adverse, even devastating consequences—that is the nature of addiction.

Why Do Some People Become Addicted While Others Do Not?

No single factor can predict whether a person will become addicted to drugs. Risk for addiction is influenced by a combination of factors that include individual biology, social environment, and age or stage of development. The more risk factors an individual has, the greater the chance that taking drugs can lead to addiction. For example:

Biology. The genes that people are born with—in combination with environmental influences—account for about half of their addiction vulnerability. Additionally, gender, ethnicity, and the presence of other mental disorders may influence risk for drug abuse and addiction.

Environment. A person’s environment includes many different influences, from family and friends to socioeconomic status and quality of life in general. Factors such as peer pressure, physical and sexual abuse, stress, and quality of parenting can greatly influence the occurrence of drug abuse and the escalation to addiction in a person’s life.

Development. Genetic and environmental factors interact with critical developmental stages in a person’s life to affect addiction vulnerability. Although taking drugs at any age can lead to addiction, the earlier that drug use begins, the more likely it will progress to more serious abuse, which poses a special challenge to adolescents. Because areas in their brains that govern decision making, judgment, and self-control are still developing, adolescents may be especially prone to risk-taking behaviors, including trying drugs of abuse.

Prevention Is the Key

Drug addiction is a preventable disease. Results from NIDA-funded research have shown that prevention programs involving families, schools, communities, and the media are effective in reducing drug abuse. Although many events and cultural factors affect drug abuse trends, when youths perceive drug abuse as harmful, they reduce their drug taking. Thus, education and outreach are key in helping youth and the general public understand the risks of drug abuse. Teachers, parents, medical and public health professionals must keep sending the message that drug addiction can be prevented if one never abuses drugs.

Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction

Drug addiction is a complex illness characterized by intense and, at times, uncontrollable drug craving, along with compulsive drug seeking and use that persist even in the face of devastating consequences. While the path to drug addiction begins with the voluntary act of taking drugs, over time a person's ability to choose not to do so becomes compromised, and seeking and consuming the drug becomes compulsive. This behavior results largely from the effects of prolonged drug exposure on brain functioning. Addiction is a brain disease that affects multiple brain circuits, including those involved in reward and motivation, learning and memory, and inhibitory control over behavior.

Because drug abuse and addiction have so many dimensions and disrupt so many aspects of an individual's life, treatment is not simple. Effective treatment programs typically incorporate many components, each directed to a particular aspect of the illness and its consequences. Addiction treatment must help the individual stop using drugs, maintain a drug-free lifestyle, and achieve productive functioning in the family, at work, and in society. Because addiction is typically a chronic disease, people cannot simply stop using drugs for a few days and be cured. Most patients require long-term or repeated episodes of care to achieve the ultimate goal of sustained abstinence and recovery of their lives.

Too often, addiction goes untreated: According to SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 23.2 million persons (9.4 percent of the U.S. population) aged 12 or older needed treatment for an illicit drug or alcohol use problem in 2007. Of these individuals, 2.4 million (10.4 percent of those who needed treatment) received treatment at a specialty facility (i.e., hospital, drug or alcohol rehabilitation or mental health center). Thus, 20.8 million persons (8.4 percent of the population aged 12 or older) needed treatment for an illicit drug or alcohol use problem but did not receive it. These estimates are similar to those in previous years.1

Principles of Effective Treatment

Scientific research since the mid–1970s shows that treatment can help patients addicted to drugs stop using, avoid relapse, and successfully recover their lives. Based on this research, key principles have emerged that should form the basis of any effective treatment programs:

Addiction is a complex but treatable disease that affects brain function and behavior.

No single treatment is appropriate for everyone.

Treatment needs to be readily available.

Effective treatment attends to multiple needs of the individual, not just his or her drug abuse.

Remaining in treatment for an adequate period of time is critical.

Counseling—individual and/or group—and other behavioral therapies are the most commonly used forms of drug abuse treatment.

Medications are an important element of treatment for many patients, especially when combined with counseling and other behavioral therapies.

An individual's treatment and services plan must be assessed continually and modified as necessary to ensure that it meets his or her changing needs.

Many drug–addicted individuals also have other mental disorders.

Medically assisted detoxification is only the first stage of addiction treatment and by itself does little to change long–term drug abuse.

Treatment does not need to be voluntary to be effective.

Drug use during treatment must be monitored continuously, as lapses during treatment do occur.

Treatment programs should assess patients for the presence of HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, tuberculosis, and other infectious diseases as well as provide targeted risk–reduction counseling to help patients modify or change behaviors that place them at risk of contracting or spreading infectious diseases.

Effective Treatment Approaches

Medication and behavioral therapy, especially when combined, are important elements of an overall therapeutic process that often begins with detoxification, followed by treatment and relapse prevention. Easing withdrawal symptoms can be important in the initiation of treatment; preventing relapse is necessary for maintaining its effects. And sometimes, as with other chronic conditions, episodes of relapse may require a return to prior treatment components. A continuum of care that includes a customized treatment regimen—addressing all aspects of an individual's life, including medical and mental health services—and follow–up options (e.g., community – or family-based recovery support systems) can be crucial to a person's success in achieving and maintaining a drug–free lifestyle.

Medications

Medications can be used to help with different aspects of the treatment process.

Withdrawal. Medications offer help in suppressing withdrawal symptoms during detoxification. However, medically assisted detoxification is not in itself "treatment"—it is only the first step in the treatment process. Patients who go through medically assisted withdrawal but do not receive any further treatment show drug abuse patterns similar to those who were never treated.

Treatment. Medications can be used to help reestablish normal brain function and to prevent relapse and diminish cravings. Currently, we have medications for opioids (heroin, morphine), tobacco (nicotine), and alcohol addiction and are developing others for treating stimulant (cocaine, methamphetamine) and cannabis (marijuana) addiction. Most people with severe addiction problems, however, are polydrug users (users of more than one drug) and will require treatment for all of the substances that they abuse.

Opioids: Methadone, buprenorphine and, for some individuals, naltrexone are effective medications for the treatment of opiate addiction. Acting on the same targets in the brain as heroin and morphine, methadone and buprenorphine suppress withdrawal symptoms and relieve cravings. Naltrexone works by blocking the effects of heroin or other opioids at their receptor sites and should only be used in patients who have already been detoxified. Because of compliance issues, naltrexone is not as widely used as the other medications. All medications help patients disengage from drug seeking and related criminal behavior and become more receptive to behavioral treatments.

Tobacco: A variety of formulations of nicotine replacement therapies now exist—including the patch, spray, gum, and lozenges—that are available over the counter. In addition, two prescription medications have been FDA–approved for tobacco addiction: bupropion and varenicline. They have different mechanisms of action in the brain, but both help prevent relapse in people trying to quit. Each of the above medications is recommended for use in combination with behavioral treatments, including group and individual therapies, as well as telephone quitlines.

Alcohol: Three medications have been FDA–approved for treating alcohol dependence: naltrexone, acamprosate, and disulfiram. A fourth, topiramate, is showing encouraging results in clinical trials. Naltrexone blocks opioid receptors that are involved in the rewarding effects of drinking and in the craving for alcohol. It reduces relapse to heavy drinking and is highly effective in some but not all patients—this is likely related to genetic differences. Acamprosate is thought to reduce symptoms of protracted withdrawal, such as insomnia, anxiety, restlessness, and dysphoria (an unpleasant or uncomfortable emotional state, such as depression, anxiety, or irritability). It may be more effective in patients with severe dependence. Disulfiram interferes with the degradation of alcohol, resulting in the accumulation of acetaldehyde, which, in turn, produces a very unpleasant reaction that includes flushing, nausea, and palpitations if the patient drinks alcohol. Compliance can be a problem, but among patients who are highly motivated, disulfiram can be very effective.

Behavioral Treatments

Behavioral treatments help patients engage in the treatment process, modify their attitudes and behaviors related to drug abuse, and increase healthy life skills. These treatments can also enhance the effectiveness of medications and help people stay in treatment longer. Treatment for drug abuse and addiction can be delivered in many different settings using a variety of behavioral approaches.

Outpatient behavioral treatment encompasses a wide variety of programs for patients who visit a clinic at regular intervals. Most of the programs involve individual or group drug counseling. Some programs also offer other forms of behavioral treatment such as—

Cognitive–behavioral therapy, which seeks to help patients recognize, avoid, and cope with the situations in which they are most likely to abuse drugs.

Multidimensional family therapy, which was developed for adolescents with drug abuse problems—as well as their families—addresses a range of influences on their drug abuse patterns and is designed to improve overall family functioning.

Motivational interviewing, which capitalizes on the readiness of individuals to change their behavior and enter treatment.

Motivational incentives (contingency management), which uses positive reinforcement to encourage abstinence from drugs.

Residential treatment programs can also be very effective, especially for those with more severe problems. For example, therapeutic communities (TCs) are highly structured programs in which patients remain at a residence, typically for 6 to 12 months. TCs differ from other treatment approaches principally in their use of the community—treatment staff and those in recovery—as a key agent of change to influence patient attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors associated with drug use. Patients in TCs may include those with relatively long histories of drug addiction, involvement in serious criminal activities, and seriously impaired social functioning. TCs are now also being designed to accommodate the needs of women who are pregnant or have children. The focus of the TC is on the resocialization of the patient to a drug-free, crime–free lifestyle.

Treatment Within the Criminal Justice System

Treatment in a criminal justice setting can succeed in preventing an offender's return to criminal behavior, particularly when treatment continues as the person transitions back into the community. Studies show that treatment does not need to be voluntary to be effective.

Suicide

Although more women than men attempt suicide, men are almost four times more likely than women to die by suicide. One reason is that men are more likely to use deadlier means — such as firearms — when they set out to take their own lives.

The reasons some people want to take their own lives are complex. We do know that many people who die by suicide have a mental illness, usually depression, a substance use problem, or both. Treating mental illness and substance abuse can lower the risk of suicide. Men get treatment less often than women, though. If you or someone you know is thinking about suicide, get help.

Many factors can work together to lead a person to suicide. Some factors that may increase a person's risk of suicide include:

Age. Suicide rates for men are highest among those 75 and older. Also, older men are much more likely to commit suicide than older women.

A major loss. These can range from losing a loved one, like your wife, to losing your freedom, like being sent to prison.

Social isolation. Those who kill themselves often live alone and have little contact with others.

Family history of suicide. A personal history of attempted suicide is a risk factor too.

Family violence. This includes being a victim of physical or sexual abuse.

Unemployment. Research shows that suicide rates increase during times of wide unemployment, especially among working-age men.

Being around someone else who attempts suicide. Having a friend or family member who dies by suicide can increase a person's risk.

Suicide attempts are not harmless bids for attention. A person who seems suicidal should not be left alone and needs immediate mental health treatment. You can contact a mental health provider, call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline External Website Policy, or call 911.

Accidents (unintentional injuries)

Accidents, also called unintentional injuries, are the number three cause of death in the United States. They account for 1 of every 4 people treated in an emergency department.

Death can result from many types of accidents, such as:

Car accidents

Drug overdose

Falls

Fires

In many cases, accidental injury can be prevented. Here are just a few steps you can take to lower your risks:

Don’t drive when you feel sleepy. Don't drive while under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Also, don't accept a ride with an impaired driver.

Wear your seat belt.

Drive the speed limit, and obey traffic laws.

Look for safety issues around your home, and fix or remove problems. Remove tripping hazards that can cause falls, such as cords or loose rugs.

Make sure smoke and carbon monoxide detectors in your home are working.

Use the handrail when walking up or down stairs.

Use safety gear during sports activities, such as a helmet when biking.

Follow workplace safety guidelines and OSHA (Occupational Safety & Health Administration) standards.

Learn to swim.

Use care with ladders, power equipment, and chemicals when working around the home.

Violence prevention for men

Consider these facts about victims of violence in the United States:

Almost 90 percent of homicide victims among 18- to 24-year-olds are males.

Homicide is the fourth leading cause of death for black males.

Males are almost four times more likely than females to be murdered.

The statistics on violent deaths tell only part of the story, though. Many more men survive violence and are left with permanent physical and emotional scars. Violence can do terrible damage to a man’s work, his health, his family, and his whole community.

If you are the victim of violence in a relationship, you are not alone. The National Domestic Violence Hotline External Website Policy offers free, confidential help 24 hours a day. Call 800-799-SAFE (7233).

Violence against anyone, in any form, is a crime, no matter who committed the violent act. It is always wrong, whether the abuser is a family member, a current or past spouse, a friend, or a stranger.

Many people don't talk about the fact that men are sometimes victims of intimate partner violence (also known as domestic violence). Men may feel uncomfortable reporting it. But if you have been attacked, remember that you are not at fault, and you do not deserve to be hurt.

If you have been sexually, physically, or emotionally abused, seek help. You could turn to family members, friends, or religious or community organizations. Talk with a doctor, especially if you have been physically hurt. Talk with a counselor to help deal with your emotional pain. And if you know someone who is being hurt, work to get that person help.

Are you violent?

Maybe you abuse somebody you love. Perhaps you lash out physically at others when angry. If you want to stop the cycle of violence in your life, talk to your doctor. Your doctor can help you find a mental health professional, who can help you deal with your problem. You also can find mental health services near you by using the Mental Health Services Locator.

Violence among men can start young. In 2009, for example, nearly 4 out of 10 high school boys had been in a fight during the past year — almost twice as many as girls. You can do your part to stop violence by being a good role model to the young men in your life. Many young men want advice on how to deal with conflict and behave in relationships, but may not know how to ask for your help. Whether you are a father, coach, teacher, uncle, older brother, or mentor, you can make a real difference in boys' lives. Teach them to reject violence and to choose respect. Share your own experiences and what you've learned.

Womenshealth.gov's section on violence against women will provide you with information on dating and sexual violence, stalking, and elder abuse, including specific resources on how to get help.

Cancer

Cancer is a group of many diseases that begin in cells, which are the building blocks of your body. In a person who has cancer, unhealthy cells grow in an out-of-control way. Most cancers are named for the part of the body where they start. You can learn about prostate cancer, which is one of the leading cancer killers of U.S. men, in our section on prostate health. Here we discuss some other cancers that commonly strike men, including skin cancer, lung cancer, colon and rectal cancer, and testicular cancer.

You can lower your risk of getting cancer by adopting a healthy lifestyle. In addition, screenings can help find some cancers early, when they may be most treatable. Ask your doctor which screenings may be right for you.

HIV / AIDS

HIV stands for human immunodeficiency (IH-myoo-noh-dif-FISH-uhn-see) virus. HIV causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, a disease that weakens the body's ability to fight infection and certain cancers.

Black men and men who have sex with men have been hit particularly hard. In one recent study, one out of every five men who have sex with men has HIV — and nearly half of them don’t know they have it. But the good news is that anybody can take steps to protect themselves and their loved ones from HIV.

How HIV is spread

In men, HIV is usually spread by:

Having sex (vaginal, anal, or oral) with a man or woman who is infected with HIV (unprotected anal sex is the riskiest)

Sharing needles with someone who has HIV, such as during injection drug use

All people should know their HIV status. But many do not. Knowing your HIV status is a vital step in getting treatment if you need it and in helping to stop the spread of HIV.

If you don't know your status, find out. Testing is easy, and there are many places to get tested: freestanding HIV testing centers, health departments, hospitals, private doctors' offices, and clinics. To get tested:

Ask your doctor to do the test.

Ask your doctor where to find a local HIV testing site.

If you test negative, you can take steps to stay that way. If you find out that you are infected with HIV, treatment can slow down the progress of the virus. A wide variety of private and state resources also are in place to help people living with HIV.

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Lạm dụng rượu và nghiện ma túy

Người ta thường uống rượu, hút thuốc từ khi còn trẻ tuổi, mới lớn hay mới trưởng thành. Lý do để người ta uống rượu nhiều bất thường hay hút hít cũng tùy và con đường từ chỗ dùng thử hay dùng xã giao cho đến lạm dụng thì cũng khá phức tạp. Gì thì gì, trước hết chúng ta biết chắc chắn một điều là lạm dụng rượu và hút quá nhiều thuốc rất có hại cho sức khỏe, không chỉ hại người dùng trực tiếp mà còn ảnh hưởng đến cả những người sống cùng.
nguy hiểm chết ngườiBình thường, uống nhiều hơn vừa phải đã nguy hiểm rồi. Với 1 người, trung bình làm 2 ly rượu 1 ngày là vừa phải. Nhiều năm uống lắm có thể dẫn tới bị bệnh tim mạch, ung thư và những vấn đề về sức khỏe khác.. Uống tham đến 5,6 chén hoặc hơn 1 lúc thì thôi rồi, đặc biệt nguy hiểm luôn!
Nghĩ tới những thứ bệnh có thể gặp vì uống nhiều mà sợ này: trầm cảm, lo lắng, tự tử, tai nạn, bạo lực (thường lại nhằm vào chính những người thân yêu), quan hệ tình dục quái gở, loạng quạng còn dính HIV!
Nghiện là cái loại bệnh thèm không kiểm soát được 1 thứ gì đó và cơ thể bị phụ thuộc vào chất đó. Lúc này có vẻ như uống rượu hay hút hít chỉ để sảng khoái hay trốn chạy bản thân nhưng việc đó sẽ sớm gây ra những vấn đề về sức khỏe. May mà mấy thứ nghiện ngập đó vẫn còn thuốc chữa. Nếu mày nghiện thì đi gặp bác sĩ người ta điều trị cho như thế không chỉ lấy lại sức khỏe mà còn cứu vãn được những mối quan hệ mang nhiều ý nghĩa đối với mày.
Quyết định bỏ rượu và các chất kích thích khác rất quan trọng cho sức khỏe. Bác sĩ có thể hỗ trợ mày khi có những phản ứng của cơ thể trong quá trình điều trị như thay đổi tâm trạng, dễ bị kích động, cáu giận, trầm cảm, lo lắng, mất ngủ và rối loạn tình dục. Nhớ nói với bác sĩ về bất cứ dấu hiệu nào mày gặp phải để họ giúp, chắc chắn là mày phải thành thật với bác sĩ.
Thường thì uống thuốc giảm đau một thời gian dài có thê làm tăng nguy cơ tái nghiện chính vì vậy mà bác sĩ có thể muốn mày thử cách khác để giảm đau, lo lắng, mất ngủ. Ví như tập thể hình, trườm đá hoặc làm nóng những nơi bị đau, điều trị bằng mát-xa, hít thở thư giãn... Những phương pháp này thường có tác dụng tốt, không gây nghiện mà thậm chí vẫn có tác dụng ngay cả khi thuốc bó tay.
Trầm cảm ghê gớm thì buộc phải dùng thuốc tây. Nếu được chỉ định và dùng đúng thì ít có cơ bị tái nghiện. Trong thời gian đầu điều trị, mày có thể thấy việc tham gia những nhóm người bệnh tự hỗ trợ nhau giúp mày bớt trầm cảm, tuy nhiên vẫn nên nói cho bác sĩ biết là mày có tham gia vào mấy nhóm đó hay không.

Hiểu về lạm dụng chất kích thích và nghiện

Bình thường người ta cho là người lạm dụng chất kích thích đéo có ý chí, mất hết triết lý sống đâm ra họ không bỏ được chất kích thích chỉ bằng cách đơn giản là thay đổi thái độ sống. Thực tế thì nghiện là một căn bệnh phức tạp mà để cai được người ta cần nhiều hơn là một thái độ tốt, một lý trí mạnh. Chất kích thích tác dụng lên não làm thúc đẩy nhu cầu sử dụng chúng đâm ra cai nghiện chả dễ tí nào. Nhờ những tiến bộ khoa học, chúng ta biết nhiều hơn về cách chất kích thích tác dụng lên não thế nào như thế làm tăng khả năng cai nghiện thành công, mang về một đời sống có ích cho xã hội.

Lạm dụng chất kích thích và ma túy gây những hậu quả tiêu cực cho cá nhân và cả xã hội. Ước tính tổng chi phí do lạm dụng thuốc, bao gồm cả năng suất lao động, chi phí y tế và tội phạm liên quan, vượt quá hàng nghìn tỉ hàng năm. Những thiệt hại về tài chính không mô tả đầy đủ chiều rộng của việc lạm dụng chất kích thích và ma túy đã phá hoại cộng đồng đó là sự tan rã của gia đình, mất việc làm, thất học, bạo lực gia đình và lạm dụng trẻ em.

Nghiện ma túy là gì?

Nghiện là một thói quen rất khó chịu, tái phát trong não theo chu kỳ cưỡng bức người ta tìm kiếm ma túy và sử dụng, bất chấp những tác hại cho cá nhân và những người xung quanh đối tượng. Mặc dù ban đầu quyết định dùng ma túy là tự nguyện đối với hầu hết mọi người nhưng những thay đổi trong não bộ xảy ra theo thời gian thách thức sự tự kiểm soát một người nghiện và đập tan khả năng chống lại các xung não khao khát dùng ma túy.

May mắn thay, phương pháp trị liệu đã có để giúp người nghiện đối đầu với sự phá hoại mạnh mẽ của ma túy. Nhiều nghiên cứu cho thấy, kết hợp thuốc điều trị cai nghiện với liệu pháp hành vi là cách tốt nhất để đảm bảo thành công cho hầu hết các bệnh nhân. Mỗi bệnh nhân được áp dụng một phương pháp điều trị tùy theo mức độ lạm dụng ma túy, vấn đề về sức khỏe, tâm thần để có thể dẫn đến phục hồi và duy trì một cuộc sống không có ma tuý.

Tương tự như các bệnh mãn tính khác, nghiện ma túy có thể quản lý được. Và cũng như vậy, nó có khả năng tái phát làm người ta bắt đầu lạm dụng thuốc một lần nữa. Tuy nhiên, không đó không phải là một báo hiệu điều trị thất bại, đúng hơn, nó chỉ ra rằng điều trị cần được phục hồi hoặc điều chỉnh, thay thế là cần thiết để giúp các cá nhân lấy lại sự kiểm soát và phục hồi.

Điều gì xảy ra với bộ não của bạn khi bạn đòi thuốc?

Thuốc chứa hóa chất khai thác hệ thống thông tin liên lạc của não và phá vỡ cách tế bào thần kinh trao đổi thông tin. Có ít nhất hai cách mà thuốc gây ra sự gián đoạn này: (1) bắt chước tín hiệu hóa học tự nhiên của não bộ và (2) kích thích quá độ các "nhịp sung sướng" của não.

Tại sao một số người có thể nghiện người khác thì không?

Không một yếu tố đơn nhất nào có thể dự đoán được người ta sẽ nghiện ma túy hay không. Nguy cơ nghiện bị ảnh hưởng bởi sự kết hợp của các yếu tố sinh học bao gồm cá nhân, môi trường xã hội, tuổi tác hay giai đoạn phát triển.

Sinh học: Các gen của mỗi người kết hợp với ảnh hưởng của môi trường chiếm khoảng một nửa nguy cơ nghiện của họ. Ngoài ra, giới tính , dân tộc và sự hiện diện của rối loạn tâm thần khác có thể ảnh hưởng đến nguy cơ lạm dụng ma túy.

Môi trường: môi trường của mỗi người có những ảnh hưởng khác nhau, từ gia đình và bạn bè trong tình trạng kinh tế xã hội và chất lượng cuộc sống nói chung. Các yếu tố như áp lực, lạm dụng thể chất, lạm dụng tình dục, căng thẳng và chất lượng của cha mẹ rất có thể ảnh hưởng đến sự xuất hiện của lạm dụng ma túy.

Phát triển: yếu tố di truyền và môi trường tương tác với các giai đoạn phát triển ảnh hưởng lớn đến nguy cơ nghiện của một người. Mặc dù dùng thuốc ở mọi lứa tuổi đều có thể gây nghiện lứa tuổi thanh thiếu niên đặc biệt nhiều nguy cơ nhất. Bởi vì khu vực trong bộ não chi phối việc ra quyết định và tự kiểm soát vẫn đang phát triển. Thanh thiếu niên có thể đặc biệt dễ bị ảnh hưởng bởi nguy cơ hành vi, bao gồm cả cố gắng lạm dụng thuốc.

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